Search Home : Computers : Programming : Languages : Comparison and Review
- Programming Languages Table: By Capers Jones, Chairman, Software Productivity Research, Inc. Huge table of function point evaluation values (how many code lines needed for a task) compares 500 languages, dialects, and/or implementations.
- 1% the Code: Compares colorForth and C: Chuck Moore, father of Forth, expects colorForth applications to need only 1% the code of C programs. No code samples.
- 99 Bottles of Beer on the Wall: Shows source code implementation for the same simple program across over 250 different programming languages.
- A Comparative Overview of C#: Also compares C#, Java, C++. By Ben Albahari.
- A Comparison of C++, FORTRAN 90 and Oberon-2 for Scientific Programming: The report concludes by a personal assessment of the three languages with respect to the numerical context. By Bernd Mösli. The reader's experience in scientific programming in C or FORTRAN would be advantageous.
- ACM "Hello, World" Project: List of the famous "Hello, World!" programming teaching program, in hundreds of different languages.
- Ada versus Modula-3: Compares similarities and differences, by user of both languages.
- Ada, C, C++, and Java vs. The Steelman: Compares 4 programming languages (Ada95, C, C++, Java) with the requirements of "Steelman", original 1978 requirements document for Ada language. Big detailed table.
- Ada95, Java, and C++: Some people think Java is like C++, but usual C++ idioms do not carry over to Java because Java is not a C++ superset or subset; Java is a derivation with many modifications, extensions. The language's syntax is alike, but semantics and philosophy is very different. Java is closer to Ada95 than to C++, syntax notwithstanding.
- Advanced Programming Language Design: Book compares over 70 languages, and main classes: imperative, functional, object-oriented, dataflow, concurrent, declarative, aggregate. By Raphael Finkel, Addison-Wesley.
- An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl: By Lutz Prechelt. Neutral, quantitative analysis of 7 languages in title, for 7 variables, via 80 implementations of the same requirement set. PDF format. [IEEE Computer]
- Are scripting languages the wave of the future?: Programming guru, Robert Martin, on languages of the coming decade.
- Beyond Java?: Compares Java and Dylan, with examples from building two CORBA IDL compilers. Topics include: multiple inheritance, multi-argument dispatch, unified object model, extensible syntax. Several code examples.
- C# From a Java Developer's Perspective: Comprehensive article by Dare Obasanjo, details most similarities and differences between the two languages: features Java has that C# doesn't, and features C# has that Java doesn't. Text, tables, code, resources.
- C++??: A Critique of C++ (3rd ed.): A critical view on the C++ and C programming language.
- CLOS, Eiffel, and Sather: A Comparison: Comprehensive, many references; zipped Postscript, inlined gifs.
- Comparing Development Costs of C and Ada: Article by Stephen F. Zeigler. Analysis of a case where most variables were controlled enough to make a comparison between development costs (time, error rates, code size, ...) of the 2 languages.
- Comparison of Oberon-2 with Modula-2: Short text summary of main features of Oberon-2; target audience: Modula-2 programmers unfamiliar with Oberon-2, but familiar with object-oriented and extensible programming concepts.
- Comparisons of Tcl with Other Systems: Many comparisons between Tcl/Tk and other similar systems, most copied from comp.lang.tcl.
- Contrast Ruby and Other Languages: Ruby vs Perl, Python, Tcl, Java, Eiffel, C++. Very short.
- D vs Other Languages: Yes-No table with definitions compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, on: GC, functions, arrays, OOP, performance, reliability, compatibility, conditional compiling. [Digital Mars]
- Developer's Dilemma: Perl or PHP?: By Joe "Zonker" Brockmeier. How to choose between two languages that are both very popular for Web development? Text, forum comments. [NewsFactor]
- Dylan Competitive Analysis: Compares Dylan, Smalltalk, Objective-C, C/C++. Long document.
- Examples of Programs in Different Programming Languages: Compares 129 (or 157?) languages, via 418 code samples, and growing.
- Fortran90 vs. Ada95: Compares Ada95 to Fortran90 via code samples, text. Well reasoned and written, many examples. Finds Ada equal or better than Fortran in all aspects but one marginal trait.
- Gnat and Linux: C++ and Java Under Fire: Compares Ada, Java, C, C++, Delphi. Text, tables. Gnat and Linux orientation. [Linux Gazette]
- Guidelines for Choosing a Computer Language: Support for the Visionary Organizations: Multipage study compares: 4GL/5GL, 3GL (Ada 95, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Java, Smalltalk), 2GL (Assembly). Divides language (definition) from traits of products that implement and support it. Several sections, tables, appendixes.
- History and Comparing Programming Languages: The files at this site compare programming language statements in several different languages tracing the statement from early languages to present languages.
- How Does Ruby Compare With Python?: By John Dell'Aquila. Text description, no code samples, Ruby Garden FAQ entry from comp.lang.python post.
- In Search of the Ideal Programming Language: Article by Sergey Polak. Review and comparison programming languages in search expressive, extensible, readable, safe, portable language.
- Inferno/Limbo vs. JavaOS/Java: A small overview of the differences between Inferno/Limbo and JavaOS/Java.
- Intelligent Systems: Table compares traits of DreamMaker, C/C++, Java/C#, Visual Basic, Assembly.
- Io Comparisons: Compares a few variables (size, speed, syntax) in many languages: Brain, C, Cel, F-Script, Forth (gForth, pForth), Icon, Java (Kaffe), Lisp (CLisp, Guile, LispMe, Scheme48), Lua, Perl, Pike, Python, Ruby, Self, Smalltalk (GNU, Squeak, SuperCollider), Tcl.
- Is .NET's 'C' Sharper Than C++ or Java?: By Joe "Zonker" Brockmeier. Text compares a few aspects of C#, Java, C++. [NewsFactor]
- Is Ada a Better C?: Compares Ada, C, C++, language facilities under DOS. Copy of article in EXE magazine, May 1997, originally titled "Ada better than C++?" Text and code samples.
- Is Turing a Better Language for Teaching Programming than Pascal?: Compares Turing to Pascal, long text document, no tables or graphs; by Jacqueline L. Martin, 1996, many references.
- Java Benchmark: By Rene Grothmann. Compares sieve algorithm in Java and C/C++. Text, tables, live comparison applet.
- Java and C++ Resource Management Comparison: Detailed discussion of the techniques used in Java and C++ to implement leak free and exception safe `resource` management. Covers memory management, finalizers, destructors and finally blocks with examples.
- Java and Smalltalk Syntax Compared: Table and notes compare some elements of syntax of Java 1.1 to Smalltalk-80.
- Java versus C++: This document compares the languages Java and C++. HTML, PS and PDF formats.
- Java vs. C#: Code for code comparison. All features on both languages are compared.
- Just Say No to Microsoft: Programming Languages: Describes dozens of mostly living languages, grouped by family similarities. Most are alternatives to Microsoft.
- Languages Versus D: Growing table compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, Delphi, Python, Perl, Eiffel, Sather, Smalltalk, Lisp/CLOS, Ada. Many clarifying comments below. [Wiki4D, Open Content]
- Linea Engineering, Inc.: Getting The Biggest Bang For Your Buck: Compares VisualGen, Smalltalk, C++/Java, ANSI COBOL 85.
- Linux Number Crunching: Benchmarking Languages: Compares the performance of the Intel Fortran, Intel C++, gcc, and IBM, Sun and Gnu Java compilers on an Intel Linux platform.
- My Programming Language Crisis: Some points on language design by Keith Waclena.
- Nine Language Performance Round-up: Benchmarking Math & File I/O: Small-scale benchmark test run on 9 languages or variants: Java 1.3.1 and 1.4.2, C via gcc 3.3.1, Python 2.3.2 and via Psyco 1.1.1, 4 from Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003: Visual Basic/C#/C++/J#.
- Object-Oriented Languages in the Industry: A Comparison: Table-based comparison of 4 major OO languages: Eiffel, C++, Java, Smalltalk. Criteria chosen to suggest where Eiffel is better.
- Objective-C: Comparisons With Other Languages: Compares Objective-C, SmallTalk-80, C++, Eiffel.
- PLEAC: Programming Language Examples Alike Cookbook: Suite of common programming problems solved in Ada, C++, Erlang, Guile, Haskell, Java, Masd, merd, NASM, Objective Caml, Perl, Pliant, Python, Ruby, Tcl.
- Programmers: Otters with Rocks?: Discusses historical move from low level languages to higher level interpreted ones, productivity, future developments. Active feedback response. [ZDNet News]
- Programming Language Categories: Brief text compares 6 basic language types: general scripting, programmer scripting, application development, low-level, pure functional, complete core.
- Programming Language Comparison: Table compares popular object-oriented languages: Eiffel, Smalltalk, Ruby, Java, C++, Python, Perl, Visual Basic.
- Programming Language Critiques: Annotated links to critiques (Older version, by original author)
- Programming Language Critiques: Pascal, C, C++, and C-Linda: By Jim Basney. May 1995.
- Programming Languages mini-HOWTO: Brief comparison of major Linux programming languages C, C++, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Perl, PHP, Python, Tcl; by Risto S. Varanka.
- Programming language benchmarks: Benchmark of the same program in some recent languages aims to support language choice decision for implementing computation-intensive web apps.
- Python Compared to Other Languages: Many links to comparisons involving Python.
- Quantifying the Debate: Ada vs. C++: Tables and text compare Ada83, Ada95, C, C++; mainly costs, reliability. By Donald J. Reifer. [CrossTalk]
- Reasons for TOM: TOM attempts to address flaws in these languages: C++, Cecil, Common Lisp, Eiffel, Java, Objective-C, Smalltalk.
- Ruby Versus Nine Object-Oriented Languages: Compares Ruby, Objective-C, Smalltalk-80, C++, Java, Python, CLOS, Perl5, PHP, Dylan.
- Schizoid Classes - Of class, type, and method: A comparison of Java and Smalltalk. By Rodney Bates.
- Sun's Comparison of Language Features: Table graphic, uses good-fair-poor metric, compares Java, Smalltalk, Tcl, Perl, Shells, C, C++.
- Survey of Programming Languages Associated with the Web: General feature comparisons, explanations.
- Survey of scripting language implementation options: A comparison of scripting language approaches in various categories. Pros and cons are given for each feature variation.
- Syntax Across Languages: Operator names and syntax elements in various programming languages.
- TIOBE Programming Community Index: Monthly updated index that gives an indication of the popularity of programming languages.
- TMXxine Languages: Brief comparison Curl with High Level assembler, BCX, Dark Basic, Mono (C#/.Net implementation), Python, Squeak, XBasic/XBlite. Curl applet examples.
- TUNES Project: Programming Languages: Over 200 languages described, mostly original commentary, many deep insights, over 1,000 links. [Open Content]
- Ted Shieh's Programming Language Comparison: A comparison of the features of and demand for some of the major programming languages.
- The BNF Web Club Language: Browse, explore some programming language's syntactic rules. See relations between rules, understand them using BNF (Backus-Naur Form notation) and syntactic diagrams: SQL, PL/SQL, SQL2, IDL; Ada95, Java, Modula-2; Lazy, LISP, M5.
- The C Family of Languages: Interview with Dennis Ritchie, Bjarne Stroustrup, James Gosling.
- The Great Computer Language Shootout: A collection of banchmarks performed on 24 different languages. Includes a tool to grade languages depending on how well they did on tests that matter for you.
- The Quine Page: Collection of self-reproducing programs: each outputs a copy of its own source code; about 60 languages.
- The ROT13 Page: ROT13 implemented in many programming languages.
- The Zen of Python: By Tim Peters.
- Timing Trials, or, the Trials of Timing: Experiments with Scripting and User-Interface Languages: By Brian Kernighan, Christopher Van Wyk. Compares how fast C, Awk, Perl, Tcl, Java, Visual Basic, Limbo, Scheme, run a range of representative tasks. Text, tables, graphs, code samples.
- University of Michigan's Language Guide: Each entry includes history, description, code examples, and references.
- VB or not VB: Visual Basic, VB.Net critiques in comparison with Delphi and C#.
- Water Comparisons: Two medium length documents compare object-oriented languages: Water with ConciseXML syntax, to JSP (JavaServer Pages) and Java; 1 brief list compares Water to PHP.
- What's Wrong with Perl: Author explains what he considers wrong about Perl, presents Python as an alternative. Descriptions, code samples, links.
- Why C is not a good numerical language: Explains why Fortran is a better language than C.
- Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language: Brian Kernighan's comparison of Pascal and C
- Why Tcl is Better than Perl: Says Tcl is simpler, more maintainable, has superior GUI interface; Perl is hard to maintain and embed, thread unsafe, complex to learn. No code samples, tables, graphs.