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  • The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Free online encyclopedia. Edited by James Fieser, hosted by the University of Tennessee at Martin.
  • Academy: Description of the philosophical institution founded by Plato, which advocated skepticism in succeeding generations.
  • Active Powers: The capacities of impulse and desire which lead to or determine human action, as described by 18th and 19th century Scottish common sense philosophy.
  • Aenesidemus: Biography of the 1st century philosopher who defended the ten tropes of skepticism.
  • Anaxagoras: Greek philosopher born about 500 BCE, responsible for giving philosophy a home at Athens and the first philosopher to introduce a spiritual principle which gives matter life and form.
  • Anaxarchus: 4th century BCE philosopher of Abdera, from the school of Democritus.
  • Anaximander: Greek philosopher of Miletus, born 611 BCE who thought it unnecessary to fix upon air, water, or fire as the original and primary form of body.
  • Anaximenes: 5th century BCE Greek philosopher of Miletus who regarded 'air' as the primary form of body.
  • Animals and Ethics: Consideration of moral status of non-human animals.
  • Anselm: 11th century English prelate who developed views of atonement and satisfaction which are still held by orthodox theologians.
  • Antisthenes: Athenian philosopher and founder of the Cynic sect who was born around 440 BCE.
  • Aquinas, Thomas: The life and work of the major figure in scholastic philosophy.
  • Aristippus: Description of the life and teachings of the philosopher Aristippus, founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy.
  • Aristotle: The life and work of the 4th century BCE Greek philosopher.
  • Augustine: Extensive article on the life and work of the 4th century ecclesiastical author.
  • Bacon, Francis: 16th century philosopher and politician.
  • Bakhtin Circle: School of Russian thought centered on the work of Bakhtin which focused on questions of signification in artistic creation.
  • Beccaria, Cesare: 18th century aristocrat whose work 'On Crimes and Punishments (1764)' inspired reform in the Italian criminal justice system.
  • Behaviorism: Theory in philosophy of mind which maintains that talk of mental events should be translated into talk about observable behavior.
  • Bentham, Jeremy: Extensive article on the 18th century 'founder' of utilitarianism.
  • Berkeley, George: Influential 18th century Irish philosopher.
  • Berlin Circle: Group of academics who gathered round Hans Reichenbach in late 1920s and later joined up with the Vienna Circle.
  • Bolingbroke, Henry St. John: 18th century Tory disciple of Locke.
  • Butler, Joseph: 18th century icon of a highly intellectualized theology.
  • Caird, Edward: Nineteenth century Scottish philosopher who was one of the key figures of the idealist movement that dominated British philosophy from 1870 until the mid 1920s.
  • Capital Punishment: The issue of capital punishment involves determining whether the execution of criminals is ever justified.
  • Carnap, Rudolf: Extensive article about his life and work, by Mauro Murzi.
  • Chinese Room Argument: John Searle's thought experiment is one of the best known counters to claims of artificial intelligence.
  • Chrysippus: Prolific stoic of Soli, and disciple of Cleanthes.
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius: 1st century BCE Roman orator and philosopher of the New Academy.
  • Cleanthes: Stoic philosopher of Assus in Lydia, disciple of Zeno of Citium.
  • Cudworth, Ralph: 17th century 'Cambridge Platonist' who fought for preservation of religious ideals, including divine illumination.
  • Cumberland, Richard: 17th century critic of Hobbes and the neo-Platonists.
  • Cyrenaics: Description of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy, which flourished from the 5th-3rd centuries BCE. The Cyrenaics were skeptics and hedonists.
  • Damon: 5th century BCE Pythagorean philosopher of Syracuse.
  • Davidson, Donald: Introduction to one of the most significant philosophers concerned with philosophy of mind and action of the 20th/21st century.
  • Deism, English: Explores the deism of Hobbes, Locke, Tindal, and the influence of Hume.
  • Deism, French: The deism of Voltaire and Rousseau.
  • Democritus: 4th century BCE philosopher of Abdera who expanded the atomic theory of Leucippus.
  • Demonax: Philosopher of the second century CE. who tried to revive the philosophy of the Cynic School.
  • Descartes, René: Early modern philosopher who rejected religious authority in the quest for scientific and philosophical knowledge.
  • Dewey, John: Leading light of the 20th century American school of thought known as pragmatism.
  • Diderot, Denis: The most prominent of the French Encyclopedists and one of the leaders of the Enlightenment.
  • Diogenes Laertius: 3rd century biographer of ancient Greek philosophers.
  • Diogenes of Apollonia: Pupil of Anaximenes and contemporary of Anaxagoras in the 6th cn. BCE.
  • Diogenes of Sinope: 4th cn. BCE cynic philosopher of Sinope.
  • Eckhart, Meister: 13th century Dominican mystic who was almost forgotten until Franz von Baader revived his memory in the nineteenth century.
  • Eclecticism: Group of ancient philosophers who sought to reach by selection the highest degree of probability in the search for truth.
  • Egoism, Psychological and Ethical: Maintains that the individual self is the motivating moral force and the end of moral action.
  • Emanation: The theory that all derived or secondary things flow from the primary.
  • Empedocles: 5th century BCE philosopher who combined medical study with Orphic mysticism.
  • Empiricism, British: 18th century British philosophical movement which maintained that all knowledge comes from experience.
  • Encyclopedists: Group of French philosophers and men of letters who collaborated in the production of the famous Encyclopedie.
  • Epictetus: Eminent Stoic philosopher, born as a slave at Hieropolis in Phyrgia in 55 CE.
  • Epicurus: 4th century BCE materialist, empiricist, and hedonist. One of the major philosophers of the Hellenistic period.
  • Euclides: 4th century BCE native of Megara, and founder of the Megarian or Eristic sect.
  • Euthanasia: Contemporary applied ethical issue considering whether it is morally permissible for a third party to end the life of a terminally ill patient who is in intense pain.
  • Evolution: Introduces evolution through the ages, from the ancient Greeks, through Leibniz and Descartes to Darwin and Spencer.
  • Ferrier, James Frederick: The earliest absolute idealist in English philosophy.
  • Fichte, Immanuel Hermann: Aimed to secure a philosophical basis for the personality of God.
  • Fichte, Johann Gottlieb: One of the major figures in German philosophy in the period between Kant and Hegel.
  • Freud, Sigmund: Lenghty article on the father of psychoanalysis who is generally recognised as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century.
  • Galileo: Italian physicist and astronomer, born 1564.
  • German Idealism: The German reaction to empiricism, including related theories of Kant, Fichte, Hegel and others.
  • God, Western Concepts of: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy article on God from Socrates to Nietzsche.
  • Gorgias: Greek sophist and rhetorician, known as "the Nihilist," born in 483 BCE.
  • Greek Philosophy: The philosophical currents of Ancient Greek philosophy are introduced, from the Presocratic philosophers through to Proclus.
  • Hamilton, William: 19th century exponent of the Scottish common-sense philosophy.
  • Hartmann, Karl Robert Eduard Von: 19th century German philosopher who attempted to combine the idea of Hegel with the will of Schopenhauer in 'spiritual monism.'
  • Hegelians, St. Louis: 19th century `group` of amateur American philosophers founded and led by William Torrey Harris.
  • Helvetius, Claude Adrien: One of the 18th century Encyclopedists who held the skeptical and materialistic views common to that school of philosophy.
  • Hempel, Carl Gustav: A leading member of logical positivism, the German philosopher died in 1997.
  • Heraclitus: 5th century BCE. Presocratic Greek philosopher.
  • Herbert of Cherbury, Edward: 17th century historian, poet (brother of George), and philosopher. Sought to determine the nature and standard of truth, and conditions of knowledge. Precursor of the philosophy of Common Sense.
  • Hippias: Hippias was a sophist, a contemporary of Socrates, and an enthusiast for universality.
  • Hobbes, Thomas: 17th century British philosopher. Author of Leviathan (1651).
  • Hodgson, Shadworth: Follower of Kant, founder of the Aristotelian Society.
  • Humanism: Brief article on Erasmus and the Italian humanist movement.
  • Hume, David: Enormously influential 18th century Scottish philosopher. Author of Treatise of Human Nature (1739-1740).
  • Husserl, Edmund: Leader of the German phenomenological movement.
  • Huxley, Thomas Henry: 19th century zoologist and advocate of Darwinism.
  • Identity Theory: Form of monistic materialism which maintains that mental states and brain activities are identical.
  • Interventionism: Examines the nature and justifications of interfering with another polity or choices made by individuals.
  • Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich: 18th century German philosopher, famous for effective criticism of Kant.
  • Just War Theory: Some of those who have attempted to justify war include Aquinas, Grotius, and Pufendorf.
  • Leucippus: 5th century BCE founder of atomism.
  • Libraries, Ancient Greek and Roman: Describing the public libraries of Ancient Greece, and the fashion for book-collecting in Rome.
  • Locke, John: Article on the life and work of the influential philosopher.
  • Lombard, Peter: French scholastic theologian of the 12th century, influenced by Abelard.
  • Lotze, Rudolf Hermann: 19th century German philosopher who criticised the pantheism of Hegel.
  • Lucretius: Roman poet and advocate of Epicurean philosophy.
  • Machiavelli, Nicolo: Renaissance philosopher who remains controversial for his practical solutions to problems of how to retain political authority.
  • Malebranche, Nicholas: 17th century Cartesian philosopher. Author of The Search After Truth (1674-1675).
  • Menippus: Third century BCE Greek philosopher and satirist.
  • Mill, John Stuart: 19th leader and prophet of utilitarianism, heir to the Hume-Bentham line, and influential force in modern political theory. Author of On Liberty (1859), and Utilitarianism (1863).
  • Moral Luck: Andrew Latus, St. Francis Xavier University, summarizes the discussion between Thomas Nagel and Bernard Williams on the question: Can luck ever make a moral difference?
  • Moral Philosophy: Introduction to ethics, with links to other articles at the IEP.
  • Natural Law: Standards that govern human behavior objectively derived from the nature of human beings.
  • Natural Theology: Used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to describe knowledge of God drawn from nature.
  • Neoplatonism: The revival of Greek philosophy in 3rd century BCE, led by Plotinus and his disciple, Porphyry. Influenced by both Pythagoras and Plato.
  • Ockham, William of: Detailed biography of the 14th century Franciscan.
  • Origen: Father of the early Church, born around 182.
  • Paley, William: 18th century British theologian.
  • Parmenides: Greek philosopher and poet.
  • Peripatetics: Brief history of the Peripatetic doctrines.
  • Plato: Biography and description of the philosophy of Plato.
  • Plotinus: 3rd century CE founder of Neo-Platonism.
  • Poincaré, Jules Henri: 19th century French philosopher of science.
  • Positivism, Legal: Theory that law is manufactured according to certain social conventions.
  • Positivism, Logical: Schlick, Carnap, Reichenbach, and others made up the Austrian school of philosophy in the 1920s, which has been influential in analysis of scientific thought.
  • Prodicus: 5th century BCE sophist, possibly a mentor of Socrates
  • Protagoras: Early Greek sophist.
  • Pyrrho: 4th century BCE founder of the Greek school of skepticism.
  • Pythagoras: The 6th century BCE philosopher.
  • Rationalism, Continental: 17th century philosophical movement. Rival to British Empiricism.
  • Reichenbach, Hans: Leading German philosopher of science, and logical positivist.
  • Renaissance: Brief article on the transition between middle ages and modernity.
  • Rights, Human: A treatment of the origins and development of the theory of human rights, with philosophical analysis, justifications, and criticisms.
  • Roman Philosophy: Short introduction to Roman philosophy from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Rousseau, Jean Jacques: 18th century French author of the Social Contract, influential during the French Revolution.
  • Russell's Paradox: Examines self-referential linguistics used to describe properties and sets.
  • Shaftesbury, Earl of: Patron of John Locke
  • Shpet, Gustav: Leading proponent of Russian transcendental phenomenology.
  • Skepticism, Ancient Greek: A description of skepticism in Ancient Greece, led by Pyrrho.
  • Skepticism, Contemporary: Introduction to the current discussion of skepticism.
  • Skepticism, Modern: Review of the modern era in skepticism.
  • Social Contract: View that morality is based on social agreements that serve the interests of those who make the agreement.
  • Solipsism: The doctrine of the solipsist is that existence means my existence and that of my mental states.
  • Solovyov, Vladimir: 19th century Russian philosopher.
  • Sophists: Teachers of philosophy in Ancient Greece, including Protagoras, Gorgias, Prodicus and Hippias.
  • Spinoza, Benedict: 17th century pantheist, critic of Descartes.
  • Stephen, Leslie: 19th century British academic.
  • Stilpo: 4th century BCE member of the Megarean school.
  • Stirling, James Hutchison: 19th century British Idealist, Hegelian academic.
  • Stoic Philosophy of Mind: Description of the philosophy of Mind of the Stoics, including the relationship between mind and body, perception, action-theory, and emotion.
  • Stoicism: Description of the system of ethics, popular in Ancient Greece, which has physics as its foundation.
  • Sublime: Aesthetic value with the suggestion of transcendent vastness or greatness.
  • Supererogation: An action which goes beyond what is morally required.
  • Symposium: Drinking-parties in Ancient Greece where the guests reclined on couches, and were crowned with garlands of flowers.
  • Synderesis: Scholastic philosophy describes this as the principle in moral consciousness which directs an agent to good.
  • Thales: Detailed biographical essay on the Ancient Greek philosopher.
  • Theophrastus: Philosopher of the Peripatetic school, successor to Aristotle at the Lyceum.
  • Time: Long article about questions of time discussed throughout the history of philosophy.
  • Timon: 3rd century BCE disciple of Pyrrho.
  • Tragedy: A term used in aesthetics to describe a situation where elements of pain and pleasure exist simultaneously.
  • Truth: Philosophical theories on the nature of truth, by Bradley Dowden and Norman Swartz.
  • Vienna Circle: Organised the development of logical postivism in the 1920s. Included Carnap, Feigl, Frank, Gödel, Hahn, Kraft, Neurath, Waismann. Popper and Wittgenstein also had association with the Vienna Circle.
  • Virtue Theory: View that morality is the development of or virtues.
  • Voluntarism: Theory that God or the ultimate nature of reality is conceived as some form of will.
  • Warburton, William: 18th century Church of England bishop, and critic of the Deists.
  • Wittgenstein, Ludwig: Detailed essay on the life and work of the 20th century philosopher.
  • Xenophanes: Eleatic school, powerful 6th century BCE critic of polytheism.
  • Xenophon: Pupil of Socrates, who contributed to the record of his life.
  • Zeno of Elea: 5th century BCE Eleatic philosopher.

 

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